Saturday, September 24, 2016

Session Five Lecture

5 min--
Impressionism was a trend; artists floated in and out.

  • 8 annual exhibits. Different exhibitors each time. Pissarro in all 8.
  • Renoir soon went to a harder edge and firmer modeling, and then to a hazy brushstroke.
  • Pissarro was a pure Impressionist for awhile, but quickly went to Pointillism.
  • Monet started realistic.
  • Sisley stuck with Impressionism, but whoever heard of him.
  • Cassatt was an Impressionist but sometimes her work is rather flat, like a woodcut.
  • Morisot was Impressionist steadily.
  • Van Gogh was a post-Impressionist, but he painted several canvases in the Impressionist style, as did Gauguin.
There is also a more general term impressionism, such as California impressionism.

5 min--
Slide show quiz
Do not show answers as quiz. 

5 min--
Show answers as you review the slides
Go over slides briefly
Women artists were respected by colleagues, but less by collectors and historians
Notice the flat, design-y quality of the Signac and Gauguin
van Gogh is Dutch, not French
Cassatt is American
Impressionism varied over time, got more defined, as in Monet's 'Sunrise' vs 'Mums'

5 min--
Legion slides quiz--recognizing artist's styles

35 min--
Technical developments

  • First car factory 1903
  • Experiments in flight; aircraft in use in WWI

Scientific developments

  • Theory of relativity was a complex of new ideas about the nature of reality
  • Theory of subconscious introduced a whole new subject to explore

Pompidou Center
Slide show of styles
Slide discussion
Pompidou supplement slide show
Video of Beaubourg

10 min--

10 min--
Dan's talk on Picasso Museum

20 min--
City of Paris

Paul Cézanne is generally categorized as a Post-Impressionist, and his unique method of building form with color and his analytical approach to nature influenced art styles of 20th C.

The term Orphism was coined by Apollinaire, referring to the works of Robert Delaunay and František Kupka. Abstract examples of pure painting, as anti-figurative as music.

An Orphic painter's works should convey an untroubled aesthetic pleasure, but at the same time a meaningful structure and sublime significance. According to Apollinaire Orphism represented a move towards a completely new art-form, much as music was to literature.

In "Reading" the two impersonal, frontally presented and monumental-looking figures are examples of what Léger called "object figures", not so much human creatures as complexes of visual and formal elements. The artist has structured the work around a series of contrasts and repetitions, with echoes and tensions between horizontal and vertical masses, rounded and angular forms, hot and cold colors, a clothed body and a naked body. Caught in this contrapuntal rhythm, the figures seem like the gears and cranks of a powerful machine, stilled in a curious timelessness.

Roberto Matta is defined by Wikipedia as both abstract expressionist and surreal.

Kees van Dongen was Dutch but lived in Paris much of the time, depending on conditions such as war. He showed in the original Fauve exhibit.

Modigliani died in Paris of tubercular meningitis, exacerbated by poverty, overworking, and an excessive use of alcohol and narcotics, at the age of 35.

Bonnard is considered a Post-Impressionist, even though he is quite a lot later than the others.

Dada's weapons of choice in their war with the establishment were confrontation and provocation. They attacked traditional artistic values with irrational attitudes and provoked conservative complacency with outrageous statements and actions. They also launched a full scale assault on the art world which they saw as part of the system. It was considered equally culpable and consequently had to be toppled. Dada questioned the value of all art and whether its existence was simply an indulgence of the bourgeoisie.

Sunday, September 18, 2016

Session Four Lecture: French Art in the 1900s

Sharing Period

LeNain exhibit

Talk about exploring Great Museum Marathon; not exploring To Teach Art History

Art through the Centuries

1300s—the Italians invented art.

1400s—during the Renaissance, Italians perfected ideals in art.

1500s—the Italians dominated art with Mannerism and the Venetian School.

1600s—Dutch art had a great flowering with Baroque art.

1700s—the French dominated the art scene with Rococo and Neo-classicism.

Early 1800s
Neo-classicism and romanticism: neo-classicism tends to be grandiose and heroic; romanticism tends to be grandiose and anti-heroic, or iconoclastic.

Cezanne born 1839
Monet born 1840
Renoir born 1841
Photography invented
Pre-mixed tube paints introduced

All this started to have an effect in the 1860s when the artists matured, and photography and tube paints had become more commonplace.

French Art in the last half of the 1800s
During the 1800s France produced a very large number of great artists who dominated the art world.

Art went along two separate tracks at this time. One track included styles that were extensions of the 18th century. We might call this Salon art or academic art, since these artists were generally accepted into the prestigious salons in France which aimed to set standards for art.

On the other track were artists who refused to conform to academic standards: Impressionism and post-Impressionism. Their work develops into the art of the 20th Century.

Artists on the Academic track got really good at traditional art skills: modeling, perspective, textures, light effects, story telling, creating iconic images. This track sort of dead-ended; their styles represent the end of the old way of making art more than they point to the future.

Artists on the other track had modern attitudes:
Rebelliousness, Questioning attitude, desire for self-expression, interest in the real world as they see it, valuing the fleeting moment over the grand statement.

Slide Show

My main purpose tonight is to show you a lot of slides. The goal is for you to be able to recognize certain artists by their styles. For instance, the best way for you to learn to tell the difference between Manet and Monet is to see many examples of their work.

Catch up from last week:
Ingres's "Grand Odalisque"

Start lecture from here. Work through slides.

Saturday, September 17, 2016

Session Four Notes



Jules Breton specialized in rural peasant scenes.

Rosa Bonheur is a realist specializing in animals.

Gustave Courbet led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. Committed to painting only what he could see, he rejected academic convention and the Romanticism of the previous generation of visual artists. His independence set an example that was important to later artists, such as the Impressionists and the Cubists. Courbet occupies an important place in 19th-century French painting as an innovator and as an artist willing to make bold social statements through his work.

Transition from Realism to Impressionism

Édouard Manet, 1832 – 1883) was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism.

Eva Gonzalès is considered an Impressionist, but this is erroneous. She was a student of Manet and painted pretty much in his style. She died in childbirth at the age of 34, 6 days after the death of Manet. His only student.

Degas was important in the founding of Impressionism because he helped to organize their early exhibitions and showed his work in them. However, he hated the term Impressionism. He considered himself a Realist and related most strongly to Manet.

Caillebotte is considered an Impressionist but his style is more realistic.


Pissarro made important contributions to both Impressionism and Pointillism.
Sisley was a key painter of Impressionism. His output represents the popular notion of 'pure Impressionism. He mostly painted landscapes. He is a less important artist because his style did not grow or change over time.
Berthe Morisot was friends with Manet, but she did not train with him.
Mary Cassatt

They constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, and used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour—not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense colour vibration.  It is an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour.

Monet, Sisley, Morisot, and Pissarro may be considered the "purest" Impressionists, in their consistent pursuit of an art of spontaneity, sunlight, and colour. Degas rejected much of this, as he believed in the primacy of drawing over colour and belittled the practice of painting outdoors.[13] Renoir turned away from Impressionism for a time during the 1880s, and never entirely regained his commitment to its ideas. Édouard Manet, although regarded by the Impressionists as their leader,[14] never abandoned his liberal use of black as a colour, and never participated in the Impressionist exhibitions.

Photography developed in 1840s

Salon System

From the seventeenth century to the early part of the twentieth century, artistic production in France was controlled by artistic academies which organized official exhibitions called salons. In France, academies are institutions and learned societies which monitor, foster, critique and protect French cultural production.

Women Artists: Overlooked and Underrated

Over the centuries, women have been second class citizens in the art world—their work has been overlooked, underrated, and attributed to their male teachers. Despite overwhelming odds, some women have been able to make careers as artists and to participate in the development of art theory, but their work is still unfamiliar to most art lovers. There's more to women's art than Mary Cassatt and Georgia O'Keefe. Come see what you've been missing. The world of women artists is full of secrets and wonders, like the hidden world below the ocean's surface.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Session Three Lesson Plan

Sharing Period = 20 minutes

Legion of Honor Museum: Italian and Dutch Art = 10 minutes

French Art through Baroque = 25 minutes

French Art Rococo through Corot = 40 min

Legion: French Art = 15 min

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

French Art Supplement

International Gothic Style

Jean Fouquet, 1420-1481

Jean Fouquet developed the so-called International Gothic style that spread through Europe and incorporated the new Flemish influence as well as the innovations of the Italian early Renaissance artists.


School of Fontainebleau

Leonardo produced little after to retiring to France.

Francis I turned his ambition as a patron of the arts on the Palace at Fontainebleau. Italian artists brought rather strained Mannerism, which soon turned into French elegance. School of Fontainebleau from 1531 included: Rosso Fiorentino and Niccolò dell'Abbate.

She is the presumed subject of the painting Gabrielle d'Estrées et une de ses sœurs by an unknown artist (c.1594). Gabrielle sits up nude in a bath, holding (presumably) Henry's coronation ring, whilst her sister sits nude beside her and pinches her right nipple. Henry gave Gabrielle the ring as a token of his love shortly before she died.

French Baroque Painting

The Le Nain brothers were uninfluenced by the Italian magnet. They painted powerful pictures of peasant families with deep conviction but little pictorial science.

What interested de la Tour was a dramatic simplicity of tone which candlelight not only produced but made credible: and when he took the further step of rigorously simplifying form, he was able to evolve a style that combined the advantages of startling realism and nearby attraction.

Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665

Simon Vouet, 1590-1649

Claude Lorrain, 1600-1682

French Rococo Painting

Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1684-1721

Francois Boucher, 1703-1770

Jean-Honore Fragonard, 1731-1806

Jean-Simeon Chardin, 1699-1779

Barbizon School: Corot, Millet

The three Le Nain brothers were painters in 17th-century France: Antoine Le Nain (c.1599-1648), Louis Le Nain (c.1593-1648), and Mathieu Le Nain (1607–1677).

David was imprisoned for his support of the Revolution

At the moment of the crowning when the Pope said, "Receive the imperial crown...", Napoleon turned and removed his laurel wreath and crowned himself and then crowned the kneeling Joséphine with a small crown surmounted by a cross, which he had first placed on his own head.[8] "Napoleon's detractors like to say that he snatched the crown from the Pope, or that this was an act of unbelievable arrogance, but neither of those charges holds water. Napoleon was simply symbolizing that he was becoming emperor based on his own merits and the will of the people, not because of some religious consecration.

Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical.

Poussin spent most of his working life in Rome. Same is true of Lorrain.

Anne Louise Brillon de Jouy was a French musician and composer.

Oath of Horatii originally commissioned to support royalty. But David supported the Revolution and this painting came to be seen as supporting the revolution.

In the Raft of the Medusa, at least 147 people were set adrift on a hurriedly constructed raft; all but 15 died in the 13 days before their rescue, and those who survived endured starvation and dehydration and practised cannibalism.

Corot is associated with Barbizon school of painting.

The Barbizon school was active roughly from 1830 through 1870. It takes its name from the village of Barbizon, France, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where many of the artists gathered.

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

xSession Two Outline: Dutch Art

Set timer
Open iPhoto
Write JAN on board
Write lesson plan on board

Before class: Recall any names from last session?

6 min Welcome. Nice to see you.
Thanks for your input.
Enhances course.
Need you to speak up.
My name is JAN.
Plan to address last week's questions again.
But first.

Importance of Renaissance

Looking back to classical scholarship stimulates learning and innovation.

  • The antique writings led to humanism in the arts, which basically means the human being dominates most paintings.
  • Period of innovation and exploration (School of Navigation: 1418) (Gutenberg press: 1440)
  • Dissemination of art techniques: Copyists and marketplaces.
  • New Technology; Invention of oil painting; Use of canvas instead of wood.

Last week's questions:

Where was Wedding at Cana originally installed?
Photos on desktop
San Giorgio Maggiore - late 1500s
Stolen by Napoleon's troops as bounty of war

Why is Mona Lisa important or popular?
Reading list: article from Louvre
Mona is like "my lady" from "ma donna"
Print to examine on desktop



Moving on

Go to Maps
Search Rome
Show Florence and Venice
Travel up to Netherlands
Show Antwerp Bruges

Session Outline
Frans Hals
Chronological Summary

Early Netherlandish Art
Louvre Blog

*Dutch art in the Golden Age
Frans Hals Museum
The Rijksmuseum



Saturday, September 3, 2016

Early Netherlandish Painting

Early Netherlandish painting is 1400s.

The economy of The Netherlandish area was centered in Bruges and Antwerp.

In the mid-1500s the northern, protestant area began to separate from the southern, Catholic area, and also to get out from under Spanish domination.

Early Netherlandish painting coincides with the Early and High Italian Renaissance but is seen as an independent artistic culture, separate from the Renaissance humanism that characterised developments in Italy.

The northern painters' doctrine was also built on elements of recent Gothic tradition and less on the classical tradition prevalent in Italy.

Early Netherlandish paintings reveal the pursuit of a common goal—to make the painted image vividly present and to render the unseen palpable. It might be argued that the Ghent Altarpiece defined realism as a vehicle of expression for the next 500 years.

Jan van Eyck, c. 1390-1441
The Ghent Altarpiece, 1432

Jan van Eyck, c. 1390-1441
Arnolfini Portrait, 1434
National Gallery, London

Rogier van der Weyden, 1400-1464
The Descent from the Cross, c. 1435
From left: Mary of Clops, Saint John the Evangelist, Mary Salome, holding up Mary, mother of Christ. Center: Joseph of Arimathea, Christ, Nicodemus, Mary Magdalene.

Hans Memling, 1430-1494
Virgin and Child with Two Angels, c. 1480

Hieronymus Bosch, 1450 - 1516
The Garden of Earthly Delights, 1490-1510

Gerard David, 1460-1523
Marriage at Cana, c. 1500

Joachim Patinir, c. 1480-1524
St. Jerome in the Desert, c. 1520
iPad photo

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, c. 1525-1569
Landscape with the Flight Egypt, 1563

Friday, September 2, 2016

Italian Art Supplement

Before the Renaissance there was the medieval period.

Simone Martini
Gentile da Fabrian
Fra Angelico

Painting with oil on canvas did not become popular until the 15th and 16th centuries and was a hallmark of Renaissance art.
Descent or Deposition from the Cross: the Gospels' accounts of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus taking Christ down from the cross after his crucifixion. Nicodemus removing the nails.

Annunciation: Gabriel is the angel.

Mantegna's Minerva expelling the Vices  the women in the sky are "the divine companions of the Virtues," as in the banner around the olive tree. The armless woman and tattered woman represent idleness and inertia. The black figure is hatred, malice.The three drunken figures on the right are ingratitude, ignorance, and greed. The attractive woman may be Diana, goddess of maidenhood, who is being captured by a centaur.

Linear perspective was first demonstrated by Brunelleschi about 1413. Mantegna's Crucifixion was after that.

Before oil painting, tempera technique mixed pigment with egg whites or egg yolks, then apply to plaster. So an altarpiece would start with a layer of gesso, which is a type of plaster.

Oil painting started in the Netherlands in 1400s.

Canvas came into use by late 1400s. Starting in Venice where they had canvas for sales.

Joseph of Arimathea provided the tomb, his own, and asked Pilate if he could remove Jesus body from the cross and bury it there. He was a rich man and a secret disciple of Jesus. Nicodemus helps him and brings the appropriate herbs.

Mary, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of apostle James. Also Mary Salome.

Helen was the wife of Greek leader Menelaus. She goes of with Paris of Troy, either voluntarily or by abduction.

It was originally built as a palace by François I

The Renaissance king famed for the gorgeous castles in the Loire Valley actually razed a 12th-century fortress on the right bank to make way for the Louvre palace. Construction began in the mid-1500s, but only part of the building was completed. Every subsequent French king added onto the structure: if you pay attention, you can spot several different architectural styles.

The painting of The Wedding at Cana was commissioned on 6 June 1562 to decorate the new refectory of the Benedictine Basilica of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice; the dining hall had been designed by the architect Andrea Palladio.

The Italian name for the painting, La Gioconda, means "jocund" ("happy" or "jovial") or, literally, "the jocund one", a pun on the feminine form of Lisa's married name, "Giocondo".