Saturday, September 24, 2016

Session Five Lecture

5 min--
Impressionism was a trend; artists floated in and out.

  • 8 annual exhibits. Different exhibitors each time. Pissarro in all 8.
  • Renoir soon went to a harder edge and firmer modeling, and then to a hazy brushstroke.
  • Pissarro was a pure Impressionist for awhile, but quickly went to Pointillism.
  • Monet started realistic.
  • Sisley stuck with Impressionism, but whoever heard of him.
  • Cassatt was an Impressionist but sometimes her work is rather flat, like a woodcut.
  • Morisot was Impressionist steadily.
  • Van Gogh was a post-Impressionist, but he painted several canvases in the Impressionist style, as did Gauguin.
There is also a more general term impressionism, such as California impressionism.

5 min--
Slide show quiz
Do not show answers as quiz. 

5 min--
Show answers as you review the slides
Go over slides briefly
Women artists were respected by colleagues, but less by collectors and historians
Notice the flat, design-y quality of the Signac and Gauguin
van Gogh is Dutch, not French
Cassatt is American
Impressionism varied over time, got more defined, as in Monet's 'Sunrise' vs 'Mums'

5 min--
Legion slides quiz--recognizing artist's styles

35 min--
Technical developments

  • First car factory 1903
  • Experiments in flight; aircraft in use in WWI

Scientific developments

  • Theory of relativity was a complex of new ideas about the nature of reality
  • Theory of subconscious introduced a whole new subject to explore

Pompidou Center
Slide show of styles
Slide discussion
Pompidou supplement slide show
Video of Beaubourg

10 min--

10 min--
Dan's talk on Picasso Museum

20 min--
City of Paris

Paul Cézanne is generally categorized as a Post-Impressionist, and his unique method of building form with color and his analytical approach to nature influenced art styles of 20th C.

The term Orphism was coined by Apollinaire, referring to the works of Robert Delaunay and František Kupka. Abstract examples of pure painting, as anti-figurative as music.

An Orphic painter's works should convey an untroubled aesthetic pleasure, but at the same time a meaningful structure and sublime significance. According to Apollinaire Orphism represented a move towards a completely new art-form, much as music was to literature.

In "Reading" the two impersonal, frontally presented and monumental-looking figures are examples of what Léger called "object figures", not so much human creatures as complexes of visual and formal elements. The artist has structured the work around a series of contrasts and repetitions, with echoes and tensions between horizontal and vertical masses, rounded and angular forms, hot and cold colors, a clothed body and a naked body. Caught in this contrapuntal rhythm, the figures seem like the gears and cranks of a powerful machine, stilled in a curious timelessness.

Roberto Matta is defined by Wikipedia as both abstract expressionist and surreal.

Kees van Dongen was Dutch but lived in Paris much of the time, depending on conditions such as war. He showed in the original Fauve exhibit.

Modigliani died in Paris of tubercular meningitis, exacerbated by poverty, overworking, and an excessive use of alcohol and narcotics, at the age of 35.

Bonnard is considered a Post-Impressionist, even though he is quite a lot later than the others.

Dada's weapons of choice in their war with the establishment were confrontation and provocation. They attacked traditional artistic values with irrational attitudes and provoked conservative complacency with outrageous statements and actions. They also launched a full scale assault on the art world which they saw as part of the system. It was considered equally culpable and consequently had to be toppled. Dada questioned the value of all art and whether its existence was simply an indulgence of the bourgeoisie.

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